• Batt, A.M., Bank, J., Bolster, J., Pithia, P. (2023). Canadian Paramedic Landscape Review and Standards Roadmap. Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, ON.

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Executive Summary

The paramedic profession in Canada has evolved significantly in the last decade in terms of the professional scope of practice, contexts of paramedic practice, paramedic education, paramedic research, and relevant standards development. This rapid evolution, along with emerging issues in Canadian society, have led to new standards work, increased research activities, and novel policy developments. A clear understanding of these activities is required to provide direction to the paramedic community on future standards development work, as well as to guide additional research activities.

This report seeks to identify developments in paramedicine—both in Canada and internationally—that could inform Canadian paramedic activities. These activities include current service delivery priorities, as well as forecasted areas that will impact the delivery of paramedic education, research, and operations. This was achieved through an extensive review of relevant published and grey literature, national and international standards, and national and international guidelines. These results were combined with a stakeholder engagement exercise conducted with paramedic stakeholders from various contexts across Canada.

The report outlines a framework for future developments under seven main domains and several sub-categories that form the basis for the research and analysis undertaken. The domains used to organize the findings and recommendations are:

  • Equipment;
  • Paramedic Service Operations;
  • Communications;
  • Management Systems and Program Development;
  • Practice Settings and Specialty Models of Care;
  • Education, Research, and Data Management; and
  • Emergency Management.

The findings of this report will guide the paramedic community toward the future and will help to facilitate discussions with the stakeholders and rightsholders involved in paramedicine at all levels about standardization work. It may also guide, coordinate, and enhance the standards development and research landscapes to further support the evolving needs of the paramedic community in Canada.


  • Alan M. Batt, Fanshawe College
  • Jeanne Bank, Consultant
  • Jennifer Bolster, Fanshawe College
  • Priya Pithia, Fanshawe College

Project Advisory Panel

  • Brett Williams, Monash University, Australia
  • Jennie Helmer, BC Emergency Health Services
  • Paul Raftis, Toronto Paramedic Service
  • Pierre Poirier, Ottawa Paramedic Service
  • Shane Knox, University College Cork, Ireland
  • Dragica Nikolic, CSA Group (Research Manager)
  • Nancy Bestic, CSA Group (Director)


The author team would like to thank the survey participants for their insights which informed this report.


This work has been produced by Fanshawe College and is owned by Canadian Standards Association. It is designed to provide general information regarding the subject matter covered. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors. Fanshaw College and Canadian Standards Association are not responsible for any loss or damage which might occur as a result of your reliance or use of the content in this publication.


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